International Business Communications

International Business Communications

Part I

Engaging in international business is usually tricky and requires prior strategic planning so as to ensure that the business investment doesn’t flop. The organizations intending to invest in foreign market ought to put into considerations factors such as attitudes, values, beliefs, customs and cultures which vary from  region to region, country to country and they apparently play a major role in the success of a business (Ni & Alonb 2010). In this case, the main issue lies behind the planning to enlarge a fast-food hamburger franchise internationally to countries such as China, Mexico, Israel, and United Arab Emirates. Since these countries have unique attitudes, values, beliefs, customs and cultures differently from that of the U.S., this would impact the fast-food business adversely.

The fact that the four countries have basically diverse cultures, customs, beliefs, values and attitudes which are absolutely different than those of the U.S. would negatively affect the fast-food hamburger franchise as it takes time to get accustomed to such foreign societal aspects. Moreover, countries such as UAE which are mainly Islamic oriented have strict religious beliefs against consumptions of some foodstuffs such as pork. They consider it as being unclean meat while other religions such as Buddhism found in China frown at the sight of beef as they too refer it as being unclean meat. Also the consumption of pork is prohibited by the Judaism religion in Israel and therefore such religious practices would hinder the growth of the fast-food franchise in those countries.

On the other hand, Mexico has numerous cultural factors which might add to the high utilization of American snack food and such factors include: the overall increase in economic earnings, changing trends with regards to the working mothers as well as the Mexican’s average population age. The average age in Mexico is below 30 years as reported by the Canadian Market indicator report of 2011 and therefore targeting of the youthful consumers would be health for fast-food business. Also, more mothers are entering the workforce and therefore have less moment to prepare traditional meals. Shrinking of family sizes plus the increment of family earnings as more mothers take up employment has made families have better sum of dispensable income (Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2011).

Social behaviors usually differ significantly from one country or society to another. And bearing in mind that are consequently many diverse societal particulars and norms involved inside intercontinental fast-food business, it is extremely significance to become skilled at these concerns prior to committing to global expansion. Issues which involve social behavior with respect to customers and/or employees which must be considered prior to undertaking the fast-food intercontinental expansion project consist of ethical standards, social manners and etiquette, values, work attitudes and ethics, religious influence, as well as mind-sets towards women (Ni & Alonb 2010).

Seemingly, simply using individual perceptions to examine social behaviors may lead to stereotyping along with other misconceptions. Similarly, employing the aspect of attribution whereby people associate behavior with tendency, intentions, circumstances and causes so as to explain why people behave themselves in the way they do may as well attest to be challenging. This is owing to the fact or rather tendency of persons to employ their personal experiences obtained from their own culture to clarify abnormal behaviors amongst people in other civilizations (Kelley 1971).

Nevertheless, so as to shun cultural and social fallacies there are quite a few forms of training which the fast-food franchise could put into practice. One form of training is called attribution training which essentially entails making persons conscious of their individual cultural background plus how such personal backgrounds contrasts with the cultural setting of the foreign locality they may perhaps visit or rather work at (Liu, Gallois & Volcic 2011).

An additional type of training which can be helpful in evading fallacies and issues related to dealing with overseas backgrounds is coaching. Apparently, the key form of coaching ought to be that of representing a higher compassion to all practices or customs and even modes of expression or language that might be exercised in another locality or even country. Also, employees can be supplied specific cases of what they should suppose to come across such as foreign beliefs, practices and customs (Liu, Gallois & Volcic 2011).

Moreover, a further essential part which ought to be conferred with the staff who will be working in foreign nation is the moral principles of the company. Behaviors and actions that are considered ethical in a number of cultures are really not reasoned to be moral in the U.S… A good example of such issues is the usage of backdoor connections and bribery. Outwardly, this manner of doing business is ordinary in many countries such as Mexico and China while contrastingly UAE and Israel are celebrated for their soaring standard of values and ethics when it comes to business relations. (Gangone, 2010).

One of the dimensions of culture as classified by Fons Trompenaars is that of individualism versus collectivism. This dimension in essence centers on if person’s values and rights is inferior or dominant to those of found in the whole collective society. In addition, Individualistic societies mostly value the person and consider in having accountability for individual’s own actions and destinies while collective civilizations value cooperation, collaboration, conformity to the group/community as well as common interests (Liu, Gallois & Volcic 2011).

Mexico and UAE are termed as having collectivist societies as they have lasting commitment towards the member or rather “group” like that of an extended family or even extended relationships. China also has a collective and tradition form of society. On the other hand, Israel has a blend of both collectivistic and individualistic cultures as it has strong conviction in the principle of self-actualization while families majorly focus on parent-children bond than members of the extended families.

Part II

Culture shock is described as the occurrence a person experiences after relocating to a foreign culture which is completely different from their own (Liu, Gallois & Volcic 2011). For instance, once the managers move into China, UAE and Israel, they would expect to get cultural shock due to the completely different cultural practices such as business practices, working attitudes, overcrowding, time scheduling, food, currency and language found in such nations. Mexico is known for having extreme unethical business practices as compared to the U.S.

For the managers to alleviate stress, they ought to accept that all nations have different rhythms and habits and therefore they should put their own judgments aside so as to appreciate the country’s foreign cultures. For instance, Chinese food culture has overly spicy cuisines and the managers have to be accommodative and get used to such foods. Also, remember the difference in Language and don’t expect everyone you encounter to be well conversant with English.

United Arab Emirates has a completely different culture (Islamic culture) when compared to that of U.S. and therefore the managers need to have cross-cultural training prior to their departure. They also should cope with the country’s cultural practices such as having a modest behavior and dress code, obtaining a license incase one wants to purchase or consume alcohol.

Mexico is a Spanish speaking country and for the managers to ease cultural shock, they ought to lay back and enjoy the sociable civility of the Mexican culture and drop the perception of always being judgmental. The Mexicans work in a laid-back and lazy pace and one has to be accommodative so as to deal with them. So as to get accustomed to the Spanish language, the managers would take short language courses.

Israel is basically a Jewish state even though it has a considerate Muslim, Christian and Arab population. And so as to counter cultural shock, the managers should learn about the Israeli customs take note of the security issue in the country. There are security officers and metal scanners everywhere and having prior knowledge of the situation would minimize cultural shock. Also, they should get accustomed to the dressing code where business outfit is regularly informal.

Part III

When setting up fast-food businesses in the conferred countries, the issue of employing the services of expeditors, decisions has to be made before the efforts of expansion begin. This would ensure that the practice is legal. Even though the practice of expedition is common in various countries, it is deemed unlawful in the U.S. A firm code of conduct or ethics has to be implemented as well as administered all over the fast-food company so as to avoid this sort of behavior in business. I would not approve any paid transaction requested by an expeditor even if it was all right in the foreign country since contributing in any illegal or unscrupulous activities simply encourages opportunities for further of such kind of business behavior and may perhaps lead to managerial instability or even legal consequences (Code of Business Conduct. (n.d.)).

Homework Help

Expeditors are involved in some ethical issues such as company compliance regulations, certain areas concerning labor regulations and laws, shareholder protection, fraud, whistle-blowing, fabrication of documents, internal auditing, extortion, unethical or illegal accounting practices as well as bribery (Code of Business Conduct. (n.d.)). Therefore, before the inclusion of expeditors in the business expansion process, one should be aware of the consequences of the adopting such practice, the legality of the practice in the respective country along with the expeditors’ history of practice. Before the use or rather incorporation of expeditors into the fast-food international business project, the respective legal authorities should be conducted so as to provide an overview of the practice as well as other shareholders such as the investors since they have a large say about the business model. In general, each company needs to choose what it observes as being morally responsible plus introduce those beliefs all over the organization.



Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2011). Demographic consumer trends the eating habits of young consumers in Mexico… Ottawa: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Code of Business Conduct. (n.d.). Expeditors International. Retrieved January 8, 2014, from

Gangone, A. (2010). Ethical issues in international business. The USV Annals of Economics and Public Administration,, 10`(3), Special Number

Kelley, H. H. (1971). Attribution in social interaction. New York: General Learning Press.

Liu, S., Gallois, C., & Volcic, Z. (2011). Introducing intercultural communication: global cultures and contexts. London: SAGE.

Ni, L., & Alonb, I. (2010). U.S.-Based Fast-Food Restaurants: Factors Influencing the International Expansion of Franchise Systems. Journal of Marketing Channels, 17(4), 339-359.

Essay on Pearl Harbor





The Pearl Harbor

HIST101: American History to 1877



The Pearl Harbor is a natural landlocked harbor situated in the waters of the south-coast, of the Oahu Island, Hawaii. It is also important to point out that the Oahu my island is a small island located off the southwestern coast of The North American continent. In history, the Pearl Harbor was admired by seamen in the 19th century and the reason behind this was its deep waters. It is a lagoon harbor and back early 1900s, the American government had gazetted the harbor for the docking of naval ships and most of their weaponry was docked there. However, in 1941, an air strike carried out against the Americans by the Japanese created an ever commemorated history due to the gravity of the attack. In this regard, this paper seeks to explore briefly on the history behind the Pearl Harbor and more so in relation to the America’s warring ties with the European territories back then. This is addressed as follows:

Brief overview

Right from the onset, it is very important to pin-point that much of the history, fame and tales regarding the Pearl Harbor generally centers on the historical sneak attack that was carried out from the air by Japanese aerial bombers. As outlined hereafter, many American lives were claimed which counted to about 2400, with others wounded; whereas the Japanese who lost lives were less than 100. From the historical point of view, many critiques tend to belief that the Pearl Harbor attack was the fueling factor that transpired into the American army into fully participating in the World War II. Most important note is that since the 1941 attack, the Pearl Harbor has since become a major historical site, a tourist destination and a national reserve in the American family ().

The attack on Pearl Harbor

Although it has never been clearly established on what transpired to the attack, many historical researchers and political analysts attribute the whole scenario to power struggles and especially the greed by Japan to control the Indo-Asia territories; and more so, the Japanese wanted to establish industries in these countries and scramble for mineral resources. But in order for them to do this, they needed the feel of freedom which was only possible if the American Army, the latter’s major rival was incapacitated. Also, during the period extending between 1910 through 1940, the American government had imposed inconveniencing trade tariffs upon the Japan economy. The US had even opted to supply the Britain, a then rival to Japan in the scramble to the political might in the Euro-zone, with weaponry and other capital aids, an act which further infuriated the Japanese. In a more limited sense, the Japanese feared that the Americans would deter them from committing their exploitative actions (McNeese, Tim. 2002 pgs 4- 30)

Thus, it is a belief by many that in order for Japan, which by the year 1940 had revitalized its military and weaponry reserve, wanted to cripple the American army, buy time and actually conger Indo-Asian and some parts of the European continent. This was practically possible through striking unexpected and destroying the American army and its weaponry . Therefore, on the material day of 7th December 1941, at 8:06 am, Japanese bomber air-crafts sneaked into the American airspace and specifically launched a devastating aerial attack on the Pearl Harbor. Basically, this is where the US navy and army in general had docked its war machinery (Willmott,, 2001, p24).

On that fateful day, this devastating attack saw a catastrophic explosion that hit the USS Arizona ( and many other ships that were sunk. The USS Arizona was hosting a group of over 1100 crewmen who perished and who are still held underneath. Many hold blame on the then America’s president, and some other army men who had heard of the air-strike notice but turned a blind eye to the same. A total of over 2400 Americans lost lives with mass sinking of over its warships and destruction of 188 military aircrafts. This was indeed a national outcry day and was later on declared a memorial day in order to pay tribute to those who lost lives in the USS Arizona, named the USS Arizona Memorial (Tarshis, Lauren & Scott Dawson, 2011 p 56-87). All these sum to the tragedies which make the Pearl Harbor a huge historical and thus a tourist center in the books of history.

The Pearl Harbor today

In today’s context and as expressed earlier, the Pearl Harbor, after the fateful attack, has become an American reserve, which is highly respected and honored as a show of honor to the soldiers who lost their lives, and especially on the Arizona ship. Least to say, a floating memorial was built over the sunken battleship and has a shrine, a marble wall with the names of the crew who perished, as well as tight security.

Generally speaking, the Pearl Harbor of today is a strong tourist attraction center and the tourists pay a little to access the reserve. So to mention, the harbor host a wide range of museums including the WW II aircraft hangar, submarine museum as well as weaponry store among others. This collection of fun and honor as associated with the Pearl Harbor virtually makes it a great place to be, remembering, and honor by US citizens (Willmott,, 2001, p39.)..


The Pearl Harbor is definitely one of the places which shall never fade in the America’s history. The place, which is a lagoon harbor, elicits respect virtually across the Americans population and shall stand to be remembered. On a different note, the museums at the Pearl harbor enlightening features which enlighten the visitor learn a lot, in terms of what artifacts (tools) were being used back then. Generally, it’s a nice place to be. The tragedy which took place in 1941 was devastating to the extent of declaration of a National reserve, and a historical zone as far as warfare mid-20th Century is concerned.










Willmott, H. P., Haruo Tohmatsu, and W. Spencer Johnson. 2001.[1] Pearl Harbor. London: Cassell.[2]

Tarshis, Lauren, and Scott Dawson. 2011. The bombing of Pearl Harbor, 1941. New York: Scholastic.

McNeese, Tim. 2002. The attack on Pearl Harbor: America enters World War II. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds.[3]